The International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie) works to improve the lives
of people in the developing world by supporting the production and use of evidence on
what works, when, why and for how much. 3ie is a new initiative that responds to
demands for better evidence, and will enhance development effectiveness by promoting
better informed policies. 3ie finances high-quality impact evaluations and campaigns to
inform better programme and policy design in developing countries.
3ie Working Paper series covers both conceptual issues related to impact evaluation
and findings from specific studies or systematic reviews. The views in the paper are
those of the authors, and cannot be taken to represent the views of 3ie, its members or
any of its funders.
This Working Paper was written by Karl Hughes and Claire Hutchings, Oxfam GB